So you might want to take all of this with a grain of salt, because it does make the Greeks look awfully good.  The hoplite's heavy armour and long spears made them excellent troops in hand-to-hand combat and gave them significant protection against ranged attacks by light troops and skirmishers. Οι δυνάμεις των Ελλήνων και των Περσών (The forces of the Greeks and the Persians). , Mardonius moved to break the stalemate, by offering peace, self-government and territorial expansion to the Athenians (with the aim of thereby removing their fleet from the Allied forces), using Alexander I of Macedon as an intermediary.  The Persians may not have completely trusted the Ionians and Egyptians, since both had recently revolted against Persian rule.  Not all Thebans agreed with this policy, and 400 "loyalist" hoplites joined the Allied force at Thermopylae (at least according to one possible interpretation). Herodotus claimed that there were, in total, 2.5 million military personnel, accompanied by an equivalent number of support personnel. Ancient theatre of Epidaurus (24th -26th July 2020). Xerxes then sent his elite guards, the Immortals on a night march to outflank the Allies.  In particular, he sought to win over the Athenians, which would leave the Allied fleet unable to oppose Persian landings on the Peloponnesus.  Herodotus then alludes to several failed attempts, presumably Athenian, to dislodge the Persian governor of Doriskos, Mascames. The battle took place at the pass of Thermopylae. Second Persian Invasion of Greece: The Battle of Artemisium was part of the 2nd Persian Invasion of Greece, fought … 528-462 BCE) 1.  However, the Greek position was ideally suited to hoplite warfare, the Persian contingents being forced to attack the phalanx head on. Key terms and places.  Equally, Herodotus tells us that the Egyptian marines serving in the navy were well armed, and performed well against the Greek marines; yet no Egyptian contingent served in the army.  It was the botched attempt to retreat from Plataea that finally delivered the Allies battle on their terms.  On the first day (also the first of the Battle of Thermopylae), the Persians detached 200 seaworthy ships, which were sent to sail around the eastern coast of Euboea. They demanded an Allied army march north the following year. https://www.answers.com/Q/Who_won_the_Second_Persian_invasion_of_Greece It was thus left to his son Xerxes I to lead the second Persian invasion of Greece, beginning in 480 BC.  Thebes was a major absentee, and was suspected of being willing to aid the Persians once the invasion force arrived.  That evening, the Allies received news of the fate of Leonidas and the Allies at Thermopylae. , Herodotus tells us that the army and navy, while moving through Thrace, was halted at Doriskos for an inspection by Xerxes, and he recounts the numbers of troops found to be present:, Herodotus doubles this number to account for support personnel and thus he reports that the whole army numbered 5,283,220 men. , The Persians had now captured most of Greece, but Xerxes had perhaps not expected such defiance from the Greeks; his priority was now to complete the war as quickly as possible; the huge invasion force could not be supplied indefinitely, and probably Xerxes did not wish to be at the fringe of his empire for so long.  However, at the battle of Marathon, the Athenian hoplites had shown their superiority over the Persian infantry, albeit in the absence of any cavalry. The first Persian invasion of Greece, during the Persian Wars, began in 492 BCE, and ended with the decisive Athenian victory at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BCE. Would the Athenians stay and fight, or abandon their city? You have just received word that King Xerxes I of Persia is following in his father’s footsteps and has decided to launch a second invasion of Greece. He crossed the Bosporus and invaded Thrace.  Despite attempts to capture Potidaea by treachery, the Persians were forced to keep up the siege for three months. Who is the longest reigning WWE Champion of all time?  Nevertheless, there are still some historians who believe Herodotus made up much of his story.  Their morale boosted, the Allied marines fought and won a decisive victory at the Battle of Mycale that same day, destroying the remnants of the Persian fleet. STUDY. Overview of the second Persian invasion of Greece The Battle of Thermopylae was fought between an alliance of Greek city-states, led by Sparta, and the Persian Empire of king Xerxes, during the second Persian invasion of Greece.  Hoplites fought in the phalanx formation; the exact details are not completely clear, but it was a close-knit formation, presenting a uniform front of overlapping shields, and spears, to the enemy.  The small number of Athenians who had barricaded themselves on the Acropolis were eventually defeated, and Xerxes then ordered Athens to be torched. The invasion, consisting of two distinct campaigns, was ordered by the Persian king Darius I primarily in order to punish the city-states of Athens and Eretria.  At Plataea, the harassing of the Allied positions by cavalry was a successful tactic, forcing the precipitous (and nearly disastrous) retreat; however, Mardonius then brought about a general melee between the infantry, which resulted in the Persian defeat.  As soon as the Peloponnesians had marched north of the isthmus, the Athenian fleet under Xanthippus had joined up with the rest of the Allied fleet. Page 2 of 3 - About 22 Essays Alexander The Great: The Importance Of Alexander The Great.  Cavalry was provided by the Persians, Bactrians, Medes, Cissians and Saka; most of these probably fought as lightly armed missile cavalry. , The numbers of troops that Xerxes mustered for the second invasion of Greece have been the subject of endless dispute, because the numbers given in ancient sources are very large indeed.  He seems to have been willing to accept battle on his terms, but he waited either for the Allies to attack, or for the alliance to collapse ignominiously. The figure of 240,000 is derived from 3,000.  Although Herodotus tells us that Mardonius was keen to fight a decisive battle, his actions in the run-up to Plataea are not particularly consistent with this.  Diodorus  and Lysias independently claim there were 1,200 at Doriskos.  Athens was thus evacuated again, and the Persians marched south and re-took possession of it. In particular, the Athenians, who were not protected by the isthmus, but whose fleet were the key to the security of the Peloponnesus, felt hard done by. The Second Persian Invasion of Greece. Key people and places. Why don't libraries smell like bookstores?  The Peloponnesians sailed home, but the Athenians remained to attack the Chersonesos, still held by the Persians.  In summary, if Xerxes could destroy the Allied navy, he would be in a strong position to force a Greek surrender; this seemed the only hope of concluding the campaign in that season.  The fleet, now able to match the Persians, had first sailed to Samos, where the Persian fleet was based.  The Peloponnesian Allies began to prepare a defensive line across the Isthmus of Corinth, building a wall, and demolishing the road from Megara, thereby abandoning Athens to the Persians. Possibly hundreds of thousands of Greeks, Persians, and their allies perished in these conflicts.  Plutarch criticised Herodotus in his essay "On The Malignity of Herodotus", describing Herodotus as "Philobarbaros" (barbarian-lover), for not being pro-Greek enough, which suggests that Herodotus might actually have done a reasonable job of being even-handed.  They would have to evacuate again in front of a second advance by Mardonius in June 479 BC.  Other ancient sources give similarly large numbers.  As Holland has it: "For the first time, a chronicler set himself to trace the origins of a conflict not to a past so remote so as to be utterly fabulous, nor to the whims and wishes of some god, nor to a people's claim to manifest destiny, but rather explanations he could verify personally. , Simultaneous with the battle at Thermopylae, an Allied naval force of 271 triremes defended the Straits of Artemisium against the Persians.  The abandonment of Tempe meant that all of Thessaly submitted to the Persians, as did many cities to the north of the pass of Thermopylae when it seemed help was not forthcoming.  The troops were, generally speaking, armed with a bow, 'short spear' and sword, carried a wicker shield, and wore at most a leather jerkin. However, internal strife within the empire delayed this expedition, and Darius then died of old age. Second Persian Invasion of Greece: The Battle of Artemisium was part of the 2nd Persian Invasion of Greece, fought … The Battle of Artemisium, or Battle of Artemision, was a series of naval engagements over three days during the second Persian invasion of Greece.  While it has been suggested that Herodotus or his sources had access to official Persian Empire records of the forces involved in the expedition, modern scholars tend to reject these figures based on knowledge of the Persian military systems, their logistical capabilities, the Greek countryside, and supplies available along the army's route.  It had previously been a vassal as early as the late 6th century BC, but remained having autonomy and not fully subordinate yet.  Moreover, Darius was a usurper, and had spent considerable time extinguishing revolts against his rule.  Nevertheless, Thucydides chose to begin his history where Herodotus left off (at the Siege of Sestos), and therefore evidently felt that Herodotus's history was accurate enough not to need re-writing or correcting. The Battle of Thermopylae was fought between an alliance of Greek city-states, led by Sparta, and the Persian Empire of king Xerxes, during the second Persian invasion of Greece. In the final reckoning, both sides were prepared to stake everything on a naval battle, in the hope of decisively altering the course of the war. No signup or install needed.  The Acropolis was razed and the Older Parthenon as well as the Old Temple of Athena were destroyed. Atossa.  The Allied performance at Thermopylae was initially effective; however, the failure to properly guard the path that outflanked Thermopylae undermined their strategy, and led to defeat. The Battle of Mycale was one of the two major battles that ended the second Persian invasion of Greece during the Greco-Persian Wars.  Nevertheless, the Spartans considered the threat so grave that they despatched their king Leonidas I with his personal bodyguard (the Hippeis) of 300 men (in this case, the elite young soldiers in the Hippeis were replaced by veterans who already had sons). The Allied victory at Salamis prevented a quick conclusion to the invasion, and fearing becoming trapped in Europe, Xerxes retreated to Asia leaving his general Mardonius to finish the conquest with the elite of the army. Vol 3 Ep 12 - Second Persian Invasion of Greece, Part Two 480 - 479 BCE - The Achaemenid Persians were now able to march on Athens. The Persian Empire was still relatively young, and prone to revolts among its subject peoples. However, if this is the case, then it must be questioned why there were Greek and Egyptian contingents in the navy. However, a larger Allied army fortified the narrow Isthmus of Corinth, protecting the Peloponnesus from Persian conquest. PLAY. Political developments in Athens would continue to evolve with one hero of the hour replace by another. By the time of the Second Invasion King …  The Spartans, who were at that time celebrating the festival of Hyacinthus, delayed making a decision for 10 days.  Then, attempting to use an unusually low tide to attack the town from sea, the Persian army was caught by the returning tide, many drowning and the survivors being attacked by the Potideans in boats. The second invasion of Greece under Xerxes fostered more unity between the city-states but this coalition centered on Athens and Sparta and failed to attract many other poleis. Athens, along with Megara and Plataea, sent emissaries to Sparta demanding assistance, and threatening to accept the Persian terms if not. Among modern scholars some have accepted this number, although suggesting that the number must have been lower by the Battle of Salamis.  Beyond this, the Allies seem to have realised that given the Persians' overwhelming numbers, they had little chance in open battle, and thus they opted to try to defend geographical bottle-necks, where the Persian numbers would count for less. The number of 1,207 (for the outset only) is also given by Ephorus, while his teacher Isocrates claims there were 1,300 at Doriskos and 1,200 at Salamis. When Xerxes was eventually persuaded that the Allies intended to contest the pass, he sent his troops to attack. , The size of the Persian fleet is also disputed, though perhaps less so.  The Achaemenid maintained a strong presence at the doorstep of Greece, in Thrace, until circa 465 BC. Scott, JA (1915). The Persian Invasion Of Greece 3806 Words | 16 Pages. With this double defeat, the invasion was ended, and Persian power in the Aegean severely dented. The Battle of Marathon took place in 490 BC, during the first Persian invasion of Greece.  After the victory at Mycale, the Allied fleet sailed to the Hellespont to break down the pontoon bridges, but found that this was already done.  The town was held by the Bottiaean tribe, who had been driven out of Macedon. , These numbers are (by ancient standards) consistent, and this could be interpreted that a number around 1,200 is correct.  At Thermopylae, until the path outflanking the Allied position was revealed, the Persians signally failed to adjust their tactics to the situation, although the position was well chosen to limit the Persian options. The year is 481 B.C. Who won the Second Persian invasion of Greece? The second Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC) occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece.The invasion was a direct, if delayed, response to the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece (492–490 BC) at the Battle of Marathon which ended Darius I's attempts to subjugate Greece.  Conversely, the Allied strategy was probably to try and stop the Persian advance as far north as possible, and thus prevent the submission of as many potential Allies as possible. , The majority of other city-states remained more-or-less neutral, awaiting the outcome of the confrontation. The Greeks and Persians battled for over 175 years, between the beginning of the Greco-Persian Wars in 499 BC, and the end of Alexander the Great’s Persian campaigns in 327 BC. He further suggested that Herodotus may have confused the Persian terms for chiliarchy (1,000) and myriarchy (10,000), leading to an exaggeration by a factor of ten.  The 'elite' contingents of the Persian infantry seem to have been the ethnic Persians, Medians, Cissians and the Saka. 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