4. Upon whom does the prelate of Opus Dei depend? [66] According to the study of John Allen, for the most part, Opus Dei faithful belong to the middle to low levels in society, in terms of education, income, and social status. Almost all founders of societies in the Church have suffered. Opus Dei (dt. [8][page needed], Regarding alleged misogyny, John Allen states that half of the leadership positions in Opus Dei are held by women, and they supervise men. [citation needed], The Priestly Society of the Holy Cross consists of priests associated with Opus Dei. Sanctify others through your work. One need only visit Opus Dei properties to observe the conspicuous display of wealth. 34). As such, it shares the doctrines of the Catholic Church and has "no other teaching than the teaching of the Magisterium of the Holy See", as per the founder. The General Congresses are made up of members appointed by the Prelate, and are responsible for advising him about the prelature's future. Opus Dei has stated that there are approximately 80,000 Opus Dei members worldwide. [44][45] Opus Dei teaches that work not only contributes to social progress but is "a path to holiness",[46] and its founder advised people to: "Sanctify your work. Indeed, cooperators are not even required to be Christian. [136] He and others have stated that Escrivá condemned Hitler as a "rogue", a "racist" and a "tyrant". Aside from Escrivá (canonized in 2002), Alvaro del Portillo (beatified in 2014), and Guadalupe Ortiz de Landázuri Fernández de Heredia[164] (beatified in 2019) there are a number of members of Opus Dei who have been proposed for beatification: Personal Prelature of the Catholic Church, Escrivá surrounded by working people, in a, [Don Alvaro del Portillo Beatified in Madrid, Josemaria Escrivá, Letter 14 February 1964, 1 quoted in, The editio typica of the Statutes is given in Latin on the Opus Dei webpage. [7][page needed], In 1939, Escrivá published The Way, a collection of 999 maxims concerning spirituality for people involved in secular affairs. Luciani, Albino (John Paul I) (25 July 1978). (Hl. Sacred Congregation for Bishops. Supernumeraries devote a portion of their day to prayer, in addition to attending regular meetings and taking part in activities such as retreats. [39] Opus Dei emphasizes uniting spiritual life with professional, social, and family life. [75], Critics allege that Opus Dei maintains an extremely high degree of control over its members—for instance, past rules required numeraries to submit their incoming and outgoing mail to their superiors for inspection, and members are forbidden to read certain books without permission from their superiors. IESE, the University of Navarra's Business School, was adjudged one of the best in the world by the Financial Times and the Economist Intelligence Unit. Fernando Ocáriz Braña, who became the third Prelate of Opus Dei on 23 January 2017. [30], At the end of 2014, the prelature has been established in 69 countries,[31] while its members are present in 90 countries.[9]. [85], Leopoldo Eijo y Garay, the bishop of Madrid where Opus Dei was born, supported Opus Dei and defended it in the 1940s by saying that "this opus is truly Dei" (this work is truly God's). [7] Controversies about Opus Dei have arisen during its history. [65] Women comprise 57% of total membership. Die Freimaurer: Geschichte, Mythos und Symbole (marixwissen) Bibliotheca Philosophica Hermetica [OV] Welche Kriterien es vorm Kauf Ihres Rosenkreuzer freimaurer zu beachten gibt! [54][55], All members – whether married or unmarried, priests or laypeople – are trained to follow a 'plan of life', or 'the norms of piety', which are some traditional Catholic devotions. [84] The total assets of non-profits connected to Opus Dei are worth at least $2.8 billion. [49], The foundation of the Christian life, stressed Escrivá, is divine filiation: Christians are children of God, identified with Christ's life and mission. While others emphasized monastic spirituality applied to lay people, for Escrivá "it is the material work itself which must be turned into prayer and sanctity", thus providing a lay spirituality. 2) It is spelled O-p-u-s D-e-i. Cooperators are not required to be celibate or to adhere to any other special requirements. "[97] Of the organization, John Paul II said: [Opus Dei] has as its aim the sanctification of one's life, while remaining within the world at one's place of work and profession: to live the Gospel in the world, while living immersed in the world, but in order to transform it, and to redeem it with one's personal love for Christ. [39] Opus Dei emphasizes uniting spiritual life with professional, social, and family life. Indeed, Pope John Paul II called Escrivá "the saint of ordinary life". [69], Supernumeraries, the largest type, currently account for about 70% of the total membership. Opus Dei has been attacked and its motives misunderstood. During those days, these Church officials commented on the universal reach and validity of the message of the founder. "[149], Opus Dei has been accused of deceptive and aggressive recruitment practices,[149] such as showering potential members with intense praise ("Love bombing"),[126][150] and instructing numeraries to form friendships and attend social gatherings explicitly for recruiting purposes. During those days, these Church officials commented on the universal reach and validity of the message of the founder. Most supernumeraries are living ordinary middle-class lives, he said. Opus Dei has also been criticized for allegedly seeking independence and more influence within the Catholic Church. Opus Dei has been controversial because of its traditionalist theology as well as allegations of secrecy and cult-like practices. [75] Because of this difference in availability for the official activities of Opus Dei, unlike numeraries the associates do not live in Opus Dei centers but maintain their own abodes. Therefore, in order to maintain a family atmosphere in the centers (rather than an institutional one), it is considered very important for numeraries to participate in daily meals and "get-togethers" in which they converse and share news. [8][page needed], The Cooperators of Opus Dei are non-members who collaborate in some way with Opus Dei—usually through praying, charitable contributions, or by providing some other assistance. [2][59], The head of the Opus Dei prelature is known as the Prelate. Ratzinger cited Escrivá for correcting the mistaken idea that holiness is reserved to some extraordinary people who are completely different from ordinary sinners: Even if he can be very weak, with many mistakes in his life, a saint is nothing other than to speak with God as a friend speaks with a friend, allowing God to work, the Only One who can really make the world both good and happy. Opus Dei is located in many countries, including England, Spain, Italy, Ireland, Canada, Mexico, Japan, Australia, the Philippines, countries in Central and South America, and many others, including the United States. [71] This includes full availability for giving doctrinal and ascetical formation to other members, for staffing the internal government of Opus Dei if asked by the regional directors, and for moving to other countries to start or help with apostolic activities if asked by the Prelate. [8] Members are in more than 90 countries. The Opus Dei menace is homing in on gay wedding planners, according to blogger Bob Geiger, of Democrats.com. [7][page needed], In 1975, Escrivá died and was succeeded by Álvaro del Portillo. [110] He thanks Opus Dei for its work to further the holiness of priests in the Roman Curia. Schall, James, S.J. Due to their career and family obligations, supernumeraries are not as available to the organization as the other types of faithful, but they typically contribute financially to Opus Dei, and they lend other types of assistance as their circumstances permit. "[157][158][159], Opus Dei has also been accused of elitism through targeting of "the intellectual elite, the well-to-do, and the socially prominent. As of 2018, there were 95,318 members of the Prelature: 93,203 lay persons and 2,115 priests. This is why one of the leading symbols for Opus Dei is a simple cross within a circle--the symbolism betokens the sanctification of the world from within. [109] Francis beatified Alvaro del Portillo, the successor of Escrivá. "What Is Opus Dei? Und außerhalb als Geheimbund. After one of the shortest waiting periods in papal history (27 years), Escrivá was According to Escrivá, the vocation to Opus Dei is a calling to be a "contemplative in the middle of the world," who converts work and daily life into prayer. [7][page needed] In 1936, the organization suffered a temporary setback with the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, as many Catholic priests and religious figures, including Escrivá, were forced into hiding. Sanctify yourself in your work. [20] In the 1940s, Opus Dei found an early critic in the Jesuit Superior General Wlodimir Ledóchowski, who told the Vatican that he considered Opus Dei "very dangerous for the Church in Spain," citing its "secretive character" and calling it "a form of Christian Masonry. 1. Pointing to the name "Work of God", Benedict XVI (then Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger), wrote that "The Lord simply made use of [Escrivá] who allowed God to work." [12][13] He gave the organization the name "Opus Dei", which in Latin means "Work of God",[14] in order to underscore the belief that the organization was not his (Escrivá's) work, but was rather God's work. [136] He and others have stated that Escrivá condemned Hitler as a "rogue", a "racist" and a "tyrant". The men's General Congress also elects the Prelate from a list of candidates chosen by their female counterparts. Therefore, in order to maintain a family atmosphere in the centers (rather than an institutional one), it is considered very important for numeraries to participate in daily meals and "get-togethers" in which they converse and share news. Although accused of elitism, secrecy, and cultlike practices, the organization remained popular, and Escrivá moved rapidly toward sainthood. In 2014, Pope Francis through a delegate beatified Alvaro del Portillo and said that "he teaches us that in the simplicity and ordinariness of our life we can find a sure path to holiness. James Martin, a Jesuit writer and editor, known for his liberal ideas in moral issues, and supporters of Liberation theology, such as journalist Penny Lernoux and Michael Walsh, a writer on religious matters and former Jesuit. Escrivá compared himself to that donkey, saying his job was to carry Christ so that people could see him, then slip away. Pope Benedict XVI has been a particularly strong supporter of Opus Dei and of Escrivá. Opus Dei was founded in Spain in 1928 by Catholic saint and priest Josemaría Escrivá and was given final Catholic Church approval in 1950 by Pope Pius XII. She recommends greater consistency and transparency for Opus Dei, which she sees as having learned the lesson of greater openness when it faced the issues raised by The Da Vinci Code and other critics.[113]. Die Organisation wirkt im Bereich der Seelsorge und der geistlichen Bildung von Laien und hat weltweit 87.000 Mitglieder. under the direct governance of the Pope. [163] Van Biema of Time magazine emphasises Opus Dei's Spanish roots as a source of misunderstandings in the Anglo-Saxon world, and suggests that as the United States becomes more Hispanic, controversies about Opus Dei (and similar Catholic organizations) will decrease. [8][page needed], In accordance with Catholic theology, membership is granted when a vocation, or divine calling is presumed to have occurred. [101] In contrast, Catholic officials say that Church authorities have even greater control of Opus Dei now that its head is a prelate appointed by the Pope,[102] and its status as a prelature "precisely means dependence. Opus Dei was founded by a Catholic priest, Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer, on 2 October 1928 in Madrid, Spain. 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